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全球233家医学期刊发表联合社论,呼吁各国加强气候行动

2021-09-08 12:05 出处: 人气: 评论(0
全球233家顶级医学、护理和公共卫生期刊9月6日发表联合社论,呼吁各国加强行动来应对气候变化、恢复生物多样性并维护公众健康。发表该社论的期刊包括《柳叶刀》、《新英格兰医学杂志》、《英国医学杂志》、《美国医学信息学会会刊》、《中国科学通报》、《澳大利亚医学杂志》、《国际护理评论》等。医学专业人员和期刊一直在关注和警告气候变化、自然破坏对健康带来的影响,如此多数量的期刊联合发表同样的社论尚属首次,突显了事态的严重性。
作者们称,各国将在9月举行的联合国大会、10月在中国昆明举行的生物多样性大会及11月份在英国格拉斯哥举行的联合国气候大会上共同商议采取集体行动应对气候危机,在这些关键会议之前,全球公卫期刊的这篇联合社论呼吁采取更紧急的行动,将全球平均气温升幅控制在1.5摄氏度以内。全球气温上升和自然环境的破坏已经在损害人们的健康,社论指出,未能将全球气温上升控制在1.5摄氏度以内、未能恢复自然原有的平衡与和谐,这是未来全球公共卫生面临的最大威胁。 
“全球升温超过1.5摄氏度对于健康的风险已经得到充分认证。事实上,任何幅度的变暖都是不安全的。”社论称,过去20年,在65岁以上的人群中,与高温相关的死亡率增长了50%以上。高温增加了脱水、肾功能衰竭、皮肤恶性肿瘤、热带病、不良心理健康、妊娠并发症、过敏、心血管及肺部的发病率和死亡率。高温危害对于最弱势群体的影响尤为严重,包括儿童、老年人、少数民族、贫困社区和有潜在健康问题的人群。
此外,全球变暖还导致全球主要农作物的产量潜力下降,自1981年以来降低了1.8-5.6%。再加上极端天气和土壤枯竭的影响,正在抵消全球为减少营养不良作出的努力。社论称,任何国家,无论多么富裕,都无法置身事外免受这些影响。让最弱势群体承受最严重的气候灾害将会引发更多的冲突、粮食危机、被迫流离失所及人畜共患病,这意味着对所有国家和社区产生严重影响。
社论称,目前各国提出的减少碳排放和保护自然的目标释放了积极的信号,但仍不足以实现长期的温控目标。社论呼吁各国政府采取行动,例如支持重新设计交通系统、城市、食品生产和经销、金融投资市场和卫生系统。
“许多国家政府投入前所未有的资金规模应对新冠疫情大流行带来的威胁,环境危机也需要类似的应急响应。这需要巨额的投资,远超世界上任何一个正在考虑或已交付的投资项目。”社论指出,这些投资将产生巨大的健康和经济效益,包括高质量的工作、减少空气污染、改善住房和饮食。光是改善空气质量带来的健康效益,就足以轻松抵消全球的减排成本。
社论认为,全球气候合作取决于富裕国家采取更多行动。“造成环境危机的国家必须采取更多行动,以支持低收入和中等收入国家建设更清洁、更健康和更具抵御力的社会。”发达国家必须加强资金投入以应对气候变化,兑现甚至超越他们向发展中国家每年提供1000亿美元的重要承诺,同时关注减缓和适应,包括改善卫生系统的弹性。至关重要的是,这笔钱应该以赠款形式提供,而非贷款形式。
“作为卫生专业人员,我们必须尽一切努力帮助过渡到一个可持续、更公平、更具弹性和更健康的世界。”社论称,“作为卫生杂志的编辑,我们呼吁各国政府和领导人采取行动,使2021年成为世界最终改变方向的一年。”
联合国负责气候科学的机构政府间气候变化专门委员会(IPCC)近期发布的报告显示,在所有排放情景下,全球升温都将至少达到1.5℃。在最具雄心的低排放情景下,全球升温预计在本世纪30年代达到1.5℃,后将超出温控目标到1.6℃,并在本世纪末回落到1.4℃。
“环境和健康密不可分。气候不断变化正在以多种方式对人们生活产生负面影响,包括对健康和医疗保健的重要影响。”《新英格兰医学杂志》主编、社论共同作者之一Eric J. Rubin表示,作为医疗和公共卫生从业者,不仅有义务预测新的医疗保健需求,而且有义务积极参与限制气候危机的加剧。
“医疗卫生专业人员长期以来一直关注气候变化对健康的危害,但我们的发声并未在全球辩论中被清楚地听到。 ”英国气候变化健康联盟主席、社论共同作者之一Richard Smith认为,“这份史无前例的联合社论展示了我们对全球的关注以及我们希望如何参与应对气候变化。”
《东非医学杂志》主编、社论共同作者之一Lukoye Atwoli说道,虽然中低收入国家历来对气候变化贡献较小,但这些国家承受着不利影响(包括对健康的影响)带来的沉重负担。“因此,我们呼吁公平贡献,让世界上较富裕国家从现在开始一直到未来采取更多措施来抵消其行动对气候的影响。”
参与联合发布的期刊名单:
Acta Orthopaedica et Traumatologica Turcica
Advances in Nursing Science
Advances in Nutrition
African Journal of Laboratory Medicine
Afro-Egyptian Journal of Infectious and Endemic Diseases
Age and Ageing
Alcohol and Alcoholism
Allergy
Alpha Psychiatry
American Journal of Clinical Pathology
American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy
American Journal of Hypertension
American Society of Microbiology
Animal Bioscience
Annals of African Surgery
Annals of Behavioral Medicine
Annals of Oncology
Annals of Public Health
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
Archives of Disease in Childhood
Archives of the Turkish Society of Cardiology
Asia Pacific Journal of Public Health
Balkan Medical Journal
Belgian Journal of Medicine
Biosis: Biological Systems
BJOG
BMJ Case Reports
BMJ Evidence-Based Medicine
BMJ Global Health
BMJ Health & Care Informatics
BMJ Innovations
BMJ Leader
BMJ Medicine
BMJ Military Health
BMJ Nutrition, Prevention & Health
BMJ Open
BMJ Open Gastroenterology
BMJ Open Ophthalmology
BMJ Open Quality
BMJ Open Respiratory Research
BMJ Open Science
BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
BMJ Paediatrics Open
BMJ Quality & Safety
BMJ Sexual & Reproductive Health
BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care
BMJ Surgery, Interventions, & Health Technologies
Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
Brain
Brain Communications
British Dental Journal
British Journal of General Practice
British Journal of Ophthalmology
British Journal of Sports Medicine
British Medical Bulletin
Bulletin of the World Health Organization
Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Canadian Journal of Respiratory Therapy
Canadian Medical Association Journal
Cardiovascular Research
Caribbean Medical Journal
Chinese Science Bulletin
CIN: Computers, Informatics, Nursing
Clinical Medicine
Croatian Medical Journal
Crohn's & Colitis 360
Cureus Journal of Medical Science
Current Developments in Nutrition
Danish Medical Journal
Diseases of the Colon & Rectum
Dutch Journal of Medicine
East African Medical Journal
EBioMedicine
EClinicalMedicine
Emergency Medicine Journal
Endocrine Reviews
Endocrinology
EP Europace
European Heart Journal
European Heart Journal - Acute Cardiovascular Care
European Heart Journal - Cardiovascular Imaging
European Heart Journal - Case Reports
European Heart Journal - Digital Health
European Heart Journal - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes
European Heart Journal – Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy
European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery
European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing
European Journal of Hospital Pharmacy
European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
European Journal of Public Health
Evidence-Based Mental Health
Evidence-Based Nursing
Family Medicine and Community Health
Family Practice
Finnish Medical Journal
Frontline Gastroenterology
Gaceta Sanitaria
Gastrointestinal Nursing
General Psychiatry
Global Health Action
Global Heart
Health Policy and Planning
Health Promotion International
Health Promotion Journal of Australia
Heart
Huisarts en wetenschap
Human Molecular Genetics
Human Reproduction
IJQHC Communications
Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
Indian Journal of Medical Research
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Injury Prevention
Innovation in Aging
Integrated Healthcare Journal
International Journal of Epidemiology
International Journal of Gynaecology & Obstetrics
International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
International Journal of Health Policy and Management
International Journal of Integrated Care
International Journal of Medical Students
International Journal of Nursing Studies
International Journal of Older People Nursing
International Journal of Pharmacy Practice
International Nursing Review
JAMIA Open
JMIR Public Health & Surveillance
JNCI Cancer Spectrum
Journal of Child Health Care
Journal of Clinical Pathology
Journal of Crohn’s and Colitis
Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health
Journal of Health and Caring Sciences
Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition
Journal of Medical Ethics
Journal of Medical Genetics
Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Sciences
Journal of Nepal Paediatric Society
Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery & Psychiatry
Journal of Open Health Data
Journal of Pharmacuetical Health Services Research
Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Journal of Public Health
Journal of Surgical Case Reports
Journal of Surgical Protocols and Research Methodologies
Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association
Journal of the Endocrine Society
Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand
Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Journal of the Norwegian Medical Association
Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine
Journal of Travel Medicine
Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Journal of Turkish Society of Microbiology
Kafkas Universitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi
Khyber Medical University Journal
La Revista Universitas Medica
Lab Medicine
Medical Humanities
Medical Journal of Australia
Medical Mycology
Medwave
Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation
Neuro-Oncology Advances
Neuro-Oncology Practice
Neurology
New England Journal of Medicine
Nicotine & Tobacco Research
Nurse Author & Editor
Nursing & Health Sciences
Nursing Inquiry
Nutrition Reviews
Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Occupational Medicine
Oxford Open Climate Change
Oxford Open Immunology
Pacific Rim Journal of International Nursing Research
Paediatrics & Child Health
Palliative Medicine
Pan American Journal of Public Health
Pediatric Infectious Disease Society of the Philippines Journal
Pediatric Nursing
The Pharmaceutical Journal
PLOS Medicine
Postgraduate Medical Journal
Psychiatry and Clinical Psychopharmacology
PTJ: Physical Therapy & Rehabilitation Journal
Revista de la Facultad de Medicina Humana
Revista de Saúde Pública
Rheumatology
RMD Open
Schizophrenia Bulletin
Schizophrenia Bulletin Open
Sexually Transmitted Infections
SLEEP
SLEEP Advances
Stroke and Vascular Neurology
The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
The BMJ
The Gerontologist
The Journal of Climate Change and Health
The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
The Journal of Nutrition
The Journals of Gerontology, Series A
The Lancet
The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health
The Lancet Global Health
The Lancet Microbe
The Lancet Planetary Health
The Lancet Psychiatry
The Lancet Public Health
The Lancet Regional Health - Americas
The Lancet Regional Health - Europe
The Lancet Regional Health - Western Pacific
The National Medical Journal of India
The Pan-American Journal of Ophthalmology
Thorax
Tobacco Control
Translational Behavioral Medicine
Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
Turkish Archives of Otorhinolaryngology
Turkish Archives of Pediatrics
Turkish Journal of Anaesthesiology and Reanimation
Turkish Journal of Biochemistry
Turkish Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing
Turkish Journal of Orthodontics
Turkish Thoracic Journal
Veterinary Record
VOICE
Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
Women’s Healthcare: A Clinical Journal for NPs
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